Isaiah 3 - 6
Preaching not Prophecy

In this section there is prophetic material but much of it is found in an environment of reasoning and preaching against the sinful apathy of the people of God and of warning of the consequences of their "habits." There is much "prophetic preview" in short references of things that will "come up again." A few of these key words, used obscurely here, but which will be enlarged upon in the content of the book are: "burning, remnant, branch, Zion:" which are mentioned in this context of preaching and warning. However one of the most interesting interpretations of prophecy is found in the last comment concerning the remnant which is to return from the punishment that the nation is bringing on itself by their own sins. This is found at the end of chapter 6 and relates to the answer to Isaiah's question: "How Long?"
Isaiah Chapters 3 through 6

 Isaiah 3

 1. For, behold, the Lord, the LORD of hosts, takes away from Jerusalem and from Judah the stay and the staff, the whole stay of bread, and the whole stay of water,

Verse 1: Isaiah uses the name of God a number of times in conjunction with other words that make the construction difficult for translation. The Hebrew word for "lord" ("adonai" Heb. ) is translated "Lord" here and the name of God, "YHWH"
() is translated "LORD."

 Verse 1: The words "stay" and "staff" are the same words in Hebrew. One is masculine and the other is feminine. Mash'en masc. is translated "stay," and Mash'enah fem. is translated staff. Both mean support or a crutch to lean on, that which you use to support yourself.

2 The mighty man, and the man of war, the judge, and the prophet, and the prudent, and the ancient, 3 The captain of fifty, and the honorable man, and the counsellor, and the gifted artisan, and the eloquent orator.

Verses 2 and 3: These are the supports of the nation that will disappear and what follows in the next two verses is what will be left afterward. The prosperity of the nations of Judah and Israel with the "stays and staffs" were still in place when this prophecy was given. Not only was the wealth of the nation to be gone but the leaders would disappear. The prosperity that Israel enjoyed has been described in the last chapter in Isaiah 2:7.

4 And I will give children to be their princes, and babes shall rule over them. 5 And the people shall be oppressed, all by each other, and each one by his neighbor: the child shall behave himself proudly against the ancient, and the base against the honorable. 6 When a man shall take hold of his brother of the house of his father, saying, You have clothing, you be our ruler, and let this ruin be under your hand: 7 In that day he shall swear, saying, I can not be a provider; for in my house is neither bread nor clothing: do not make me a ruler of the people. 8 For Jerusalem is ruined, and Judah is fallen: because their tongue and their practices are against the LORD, to provoke the eyes of his glory. 9. The appearance of their countenance witnesses against them; and they declare their sin as Sodom, they hide it not. Woe to their soul! for they have rewarded evil to themselves.

Verse 9: Appearance of their countenance; there is a similar accusation laid at the door of Cain whom God said had a "fallen" face. If Cain was doing well he would be "lifted up" but as it was his face gave away the evil in his heart. So then the inhabitants of Jerusalem who take on the aspects associated with their sin. This is often the case, though not always so else there could be no hypocrites, with those who are committed to certain sins.

 10 Say to the righteous, that it shall be well with him: for they shall eat the fruit of their practices.

Verses 8 and 10: Practices (or habits) is: Ma'al-leyhem from ma'alaliym as in verse 8. This word refers to the daily ordinary habits that are routine. See comments under Zechariah 1:4 and 5. In verse 8 the conditions were not that of committing sins as a violation of what is considered the "norm" but that sin was itself the ordinary way of life which was practiced thoughtlessly as the propriety of their perceived world. The righteous would also fare in the same way: that is the habits of anyone will have an ultimate natural outcome. Whether the righteous or the wicked, their habits will have an end that is predictable, as the next verse says..

11 Woe to the wicked! it shall be ill with him: for the reward of his hands shall be given them. 12 As for my people, children are their oppressors, and women rule over them. O my people, those who lead you cause you to err, and destroy the way of your paths. 13 The LORD stands up to plead, and stands to judge the people. 14 The LORD will enter into judgment with the ancients of his people, and their princes: for they have eaten up the vineyard; the spoil of the poor is in your houses. 15 What do you mean by beating my people to pieces, and grinding the faces of the poor? says the Lord GOD of hosts. 16. Moreover the LORD says, Because the daughters of Zion are haughty, and walk with stretched forth necks and wanton eyes, walking and mincing as they go, and making a tinkling with their feet: 17 Therefore the Lord will strike the crown of the head of the daughters of Zion with a scab, and the LORD will discover their secret parts. 18 In that day the Lord will take away the beauty of their tinkling ornaments about their feet, and their headbands, and their crescent ornaments, 19 The chains, and the bracelets, and the mufflers, 20 The bonnets, and the ornaments of the legs, and the sashes, and the tablets, and the earrings, 21 The rings, and nose jewels, 22 The changeable suits of clothes, and the cloaks, and the coats, and the crisping pins, 23 The glasses, and the fine linen, and the hoods, and the veils. 24 And it shall be, that instead of sweet smell there shall be stink; and instead of a girdle a tear; and instead of well set hair baldness; and instead of a sash a belt of burlap; and burning instead of beauty. 25 Your men shall fall by the sword, and your mighty in the war. 26 And her gates shall lament and mourn; and she being desolate shall sit upon the ground.

Isaiah 4

 1. And in that day seven women shall take hold of one man, saying, We will eat our own bread, and wear our own apparel: only let us be called by your name, to take away our reproach. 2. In that day shall the branch of the LORD be beautiful and glorious, and the fruit of the earth shall be excellence and majesty for them that are the escaped of Israel.

Verse 2: Branch: The introduction of the future day, describing it as the day of the "Branch.," means that the words are full of symbolism and the rest of the chapter describing Zion in the day of the Messiah is illustrated with figurative events which are to be understood spiritually, not literally. It must also relate this verse to other symbolic "Branch" prophesies. See Zek. 3:8; 6:12 and others for branch prophecies. Two words: ."tsemach" and "natser"  are used in these prophecies. The second word is related to Nazareth and Nazarene as in Isa. 11:1 and other places referring to the Messiah: those are Isa. 1:8; 14:19; 26:3; 27:3; especially messianic are 42:6; 48:6; 49:6; 49:8; and also see 60:21; 65:4. The Holy Spirit called the name of Nazareth in Isa. 48:6. It is these passages with those in Zechariah that Matthew had in mind when he said in Matthew 2:23 "And he came and dwelt in a city called Nazareth: that it might be fulfilled which was spoken by the prophets, He shall be called a Nazarene." See the chapter Excursus on The Nazarene" in this book. The Aramaic Targum of Isaiah (probably 300 B.C.) paraphrases "Messiah" for "branch" here as it also does in 11:1. It is clearly established that all inter-testament Jewish scholars saw all branch prophecies as Messianic.

Verse 2: LXX: It is difficult to understand why the LXX leaves out the word "branch" in this verse. The word is translated "branch, shoot, growth, or bud" whereever it is found but here it is treated as an adverb of purpose by the LXX. The literal Hebrew favors the use of the word as the "Branch of YHWH." The LXX renders the verse: "In that day, God, with a will and with glory, will lay hold on the earth, to glorify the remnant of Israel." Neither "branch" nor "fruit of the earth" are in the LXX. The literal Hebrew is: "In that day the branch of the LORD (tsemach YHWH) will be beautiful (lit. like a deer) and glorious and the fruit of the earth shall be exaltation and magnificence to the escaped of Israel."

Verse 2: "escaped of Israel" The Qumran Great Isaiah Scroll adds the words "and Judah" to this text. See the Qumran text with the insertion of "Judah" at the end of this verse, i.e. Isa 4:2. This is interesting in a "nazar" context and is a confirmation that interpretation of restoration prophecies in the "silent years" saw the return of the remnant of all 12 tribes to have been completed in the foundation of the second commonwealth when the return of the Jews to Palestine made possible the waves of "aliyahs" for the 300 years after the decree of Cyrus in 536 BCE. In Ezekiel 37 the word "Judah" is added by the LXX translators to make the same idea clear (i.e. Judah contained all 12 tribes in the restoration during the "silent years.) See the comments surrounding Ezekiel 37:21,22.

3 And it shall be, that he that is left in Zion, and he that remains in Jerusalem, shall be called holy, even every one that is written among the living in Jerusalem:

Verse 3: For more on the remnant called those "left in Zion." see notes on 10:24

4 When the Lord shall have washed away the filth of the daughters of Zion, and shall have purged the blood of Jerusalem from the midst of it by the spirit of judgment, and by the spirit of burning.

Verse 4: Spirit of burning: The forgiveness of sins in the day of the "Branch" in this verse is another connection to the messianic visitation about which Isaiah will yet speak many things. In chapter 9 he contrasts the visitation of Tiglath Pileser which destroyed Galilee with the future visitation of the Messiah. When he changes from the physical destruction wrought by the Assyrian to the Messiah in 9:5 he uses similar language to describe the messianic visitation (which is properly translated in the KJV but is missed by those who use the method of "dynamic parallelism") Messiah's coming, he says, is to be in contrast to the noise and blood of battle. He says of the Messiah: "this will be with burning and fuel of fire, for unto us a child is born...etc." This verse then is introductory to the spiritual "burning" to be enlarged on later. See also comments on verses 6:12,13 where burning is the means of spreading God's "seeds of holiness" in the time of the future restoration.

5 And the LORD will create over every establishment of Mount Zion, and over her assemblies, a daily cloud and smoke, and the shining of a flaming fire by night: thus the glory shall be a shelter over all. 6 And there shall be a shelter for shade in the daytime from the heat, and for a place of refuge, and for a cover from storm and from rain.

Verse 5: Establishment: This word "ma-kon"  (long "o") is found 10 times in the O.T. In each and every case it refers to the place where the shekina glory dwells, whether in earth or heaven. (see Ex 15:17; and 1 Kings 8:13, translated "the place" and 1 Ki 8:39, translated dwelling "place" and 1 Ki 8:43 translated: dwelling "place", and 1 KI 8:49 translated: dwelling "place"; and 2 Chron 6:30 translated: dwelling "place"; and Ps 89:14 translated: "habitation" of your throne; and Ps 97:1 translated: "habitation" of his throne; and Isa 4:5 translated: "establishment" but KJV "dwelling place"; and in Isa 18:4 translated "dwelling place" Dan 8:11 translated: "place" of his sanctuary .) The rest of the verse has other references to the same "motif" of the shekina glory, i.e. the pillar of fire and the pillar of cloud which led the nation of Israel in the wilderness in their travels but inhabited the sanctuary of the tabernacle when they were settled. These further references to the shekina glory confirm that "ma-kon" is to be understood as the place of the sanctuary of the habitation of the Almighty. In the Mosaic dispensation that would refer to the Holy of holies in the temple in Jerusalem. But in the messianic period Isaiah is predicting here it would be a picture of the restoration of Zion under the Messiah when Zion's churches would be inhabited by the Holy Spirit. That would be hard to miss in this highly figurative section. See important notes under Isa 2:2 where the word is used verbally and refers to the establishment of messianic Zion. See especially 16:5 for the use of the cognate [hu-kan]  which can refer to an establishment of a sanctuary in general but there refers to the final reestablishment of David's throne.

Verse 5: Assembly, Hebrew is Miqra' It is implied in the word that the assemblies are for the purpose of hearing the scriptures read and explained. Other words translated assembly are: simply a gathering for whatever purpose; as a gathering to bear witness. The New Testament word corresponding to Miqr'a is "ekklesia," or "church." These words are to have a spiritual application in keeping with the spiritual nature of the preceding verses which speak of the messianic Nazarene or Branch.

 Isaiah 5

 1. Ah, let me sing to my dearest, a song of my beloved, about his vineyard. My dearest has a vineyard in a very fruitful hill: 2 And he fenced it, and gathered the stones out of it, and planted it with the choicest vine, and built a tower in the midst of it, and also made a winepress in it: and he hoped it would bring forth grapes, and it brought forth wild grapes. 3 And now, O inhabitants of Jerusalem, and men of Judah, I ask you, judge between me and my vineyard. 4 What more could have been done to my vineyard, that I have not done in it? why, when I hoped for it to bring forth grapes, did it bring forth wild grapes? 5 And now allow me; I will tell you what I will do to my vineyard: I will take away its hedge, and it shall be eaten up; and break down its wall, and it shall be trodden down: 6 And I will lay it waste: it shall not be pruned, nor digged; but there shall come up briers and thorns: I will also command the clouds that they rain no rain upon it. 7 For the vineyard of the LORD of hosts is the house of Israel, and the men of Judah his pleasant plant: and he looked for judgment, but behold oppression; for righteousness, but behold a bitter cry. 8. Woe to them that join house to house, that lay field to field, till there be no place, that they may be placed alone in the midst of the earth! 9 In my ears said the LORD of hosts, Truly many houses, even great and fair, shall be desolate, without inhabitant. 10 Yes, ten acres of vineyard shall only yield five gallons, and the seed of a barrel shall only yield a bushel. 11 Woe to them that rise up early in the morning, that they may follow strong drink; that continue until night, till wine inflame them! 12 And the harp, and the viol, the tabret, and pipe, and wine, are in their feasts: but they regard not the work of the LORD, neither consider the operation of his hands. 13 Therefore my people are gone into captivity, because they are without knowledge: and their glory is hungry men, and dry thirsty multitudes.

Verse 13: The captivity of Israel, ie. the northern kingdom, began during the life of Isaiah, but there is nothing to preclude the idea that Isaiah is predicting the coming captivity of Judah too, as he does later in his book. Commentators who consider the last part of Isaiah as a product of a second person and not Isaiah do not consider that the destruction of the temple and the captivity were miraculously predicted by a number of other prophets. The same prophets predicted the restoration of the temple and the nation,--fulfilled in the founding of the second commonwealth -- long before the events took place. It should be no surprise that Isaiah would do the same and speak of these future events as if they had already happened because they are the ultimate outcome of the continuing waywardness and idolatry of the nation which he condemns. The warnings of the coming punishment of first, the Assyrians and second, the Babylonians as God's agents for the punishment is only natural in the context of the book. After all he predicted the restoration of the temple in Isa 44:28 and named Cyrus as the one who would issue the decree for the rebuilding. If he miraculously predicted these events about the rebuilding of the temple then why would he not also predict the destruction and exile which preceded it. What an elaborate web unbelievers weave when they deny the miraculous!

14 Therefore Sheol has widened her soul, and opened her mouth without measure: and their glory, and their multitude, and their pomp, and he that rejoices, shall descend into it.

Verse 14: Sheol in Hebrew is neither the grave nor the place of eternal punishment, but rather corresponds to Hades ('adas) which indicates the abode of the departed spirits. Bodies go to the grave. Spirits rest in Sheol-Hades. Sheol is found in the original where the KJV uses the word Hell. Hell is the place of eternal torment where no one is staying at this time. It is not meant in any of the places where it is used in Isaiah in the KJV.

15 For humanity is brought down, and mankind is humbled, and the eyes of the lofty are humbled:

Verse 15: Humanity and mankind: See 2:9 for same construction in Heb. However there the bowing and humbling is done by the worshipper of Idols. Here the same subjects are made to bow by an angry God.

 16 But the LORD of hosts shall be exalted in judgment, and the holy God shall be made holy in righteousness. 17 Then shall the lambs feed after their manner, and the waste places of the fat ones shall strangers eat. 18. Woe to them that draw iniquity with cords of vanity, and draw sin as it were with a cart rope: 19 Who say, Let him hurry, and hasten his work, so we may see it: and let the counsel of the Holy One of Israel draw near and come, so that we may know it! 20 Woe to them that call evil good, and good evil; that put darkness for light, and light for darkness; that put bitter for sweet, and sweet for bitter! 21 Woe to them that are wise in their own eyes, and prudent in their own sight! 22 Woe to them that are mighty to drink wine, and men of strength to mingle strong drink: 23 Which justify the wicked for reward, and take away the righteousness of the righteous from him! 24 Therefore as the fire devours the stubble, and the flame consumes the chaff, so their root shall rot, and their blossom shall go up as dust: because they have cast away the law of the LORD of hosts, and despised the word of the Holy One of Israel. 25 Therefore the anger of the LORD is kindled against his people, and he has stretched out his hand against them, and has struck them: and the hills did tremble, and their carcasses were torn in the midst of the streets. For all this his anger is not turned away, but his hand is stretched out still.

Verse 25: For all this his anger is not turned away, but his hand is stretched out still. This phrase introduces a series of punishments that God is going to bring on his people, Judah and Israel. The series of predicted calamities is to begin with Israel first. It is introduced here and is continued in 8:12 below. These warnings are prophetic. They are imminent but have not happened to the nations yet. Here, in the first warning, is the vision of an invading force which leaves many dead bodies in the cities of Israel. It no doubt refers to the invasion of Tiglath-pileser, king of Assyria when he emptied Galilee and Gilead of its occupants but left Samaria. But that is only the beginning of the series of Woes that are a result of the nation abandoning their faith in God and His word. Those affecting Israel, more than Judah, will be elaborated on in chapters 7 - 12.

26 And he will lift up an ensign to the nations from far, and will hiss to them from the end of the earth: and, behold, they shall come with speed swiftly: 27 None shall be weary nor stumble among them; none shall slumber nor sleep; neither shall the girdle of their loins be loosed, nor the latchet of their shoes be broken: 28 Whose arrows are sharp, and all their bows bent, their horses' hoofs shall be counted like flint, and their wheels like a whirlwind: 29 Their roaring shall be like a lion, they shall roar like young lions: yes, they shall roar, and lay hold of the prey, and shall carry it away safe, and none shall deliver it. 30 And in that day they shall roar at the prey like the roaring of the sea: and if one looks to the earth for answers he will see darkness and sorrow, even the light will be darkened in its overcast.

Verse 30: Looks to the earth: This phrase is similar to the description of those "who dwell in the earth." These are both contrasts between the spiritual and the unspiritual inhabitants of Israel and of the ungodly and godly residents of the nation. Those who look to the earth are contrasted with those who look upward and look to their God and those who dwell in the earth are contrasted with those who dwell in Zion. The former are destined to frustration and misery which will be explained in detail in chapter 8 and the latter will be justified in their faith by the final and intermediated outcomes of the plans that God has for "Zion." Those who trust in Zion will find eternal joy in spite of the difficulties and pain of earthly life. This theme will occur over and over in Isaiah.
See Isa 8:22

 Verse 30: This is an introduction to chapter seven: "Light darkened in its overcast:" The picture here is the same one drawn and fulfilled at the same time as that described in the companion verses in 8:22-9:1. The idea of seeking political answers while neglecting to ask and trust in God is seen in both places. In 8:22 "they turn from above" and they "look to the earth" for answers and the result is described in key words that will be used again there as here by Isaiah: "and if one looks to the earth for answers he will see darkness and sorrow, even the light will be darkened in the mists." This is the same picture as the similar words of 8:22: "But they shall look to the earth; and find trouble and darkness, and they shall be driven to darkness and dimness of anguish;" Isaiah gives a general picture here of the anguish to come and then, as almost all the prophetic books do, he begins, as here, supplying limited information, and then elaborates more and more until, as in chapter 8 and 9 where it is finally overwhelmingly apparent that the condition of anguish, darkness, trouble, sorrow, dimness and dead bodies left unburied in the streets is to be brought on the nation by the rise of the Assyrian Empire which is heralded by the invasion of Tiglath-pileser and his devastation of Damascus and the northern part of the kingdom of Israel. This is the subject of chapters seven through twelve and is introduced here in these words.

Isaiah 6

1. In the year that king Uzziah died I saw also the Lord sitting upon a throne, high and lifted up, and his train filled the temple.

Verse 1: In the Year that Uzziah died: Uzziah had a long and eventful reign of 52 years. His reign overlaps the reign of Jeroboam II who was the last of the powerful kings of Israel. Jeroboam had established control over all the former territories held by David and Solomon, making Syria a vassal state as far as the Euphrates and he gained control of Eilat which is the important port on the Gulf of Aqabah with access to the Indian Ocean. Damascus regained their own sovereignty after the death of Jeroboam 2 Chr 26:2 says that Uzziah restored Eilat to Judah. 2 Chr 26:22 says: Now the rest of the acts of Uzziah, first and last, did Isaiah the prophet, the son of Amoz, write.

The Age of Isaiah

Age of Isaiah is a conjecture. Oral Tradition, not the Bible, says he was sawed in half under Manasseh son of Hezekiah. His mouth was washed with fire in the last year of Uzziah and he continued therefore through the reigns of Jotham, Ahaz and Hezekiah. How much longer into the reign of Manasseh can only be speculative. Manasseh had a very long reign of 55, mostly wicked, years. After the death of Uzziah, Jotham reigned 16 years, Ahaz also reigned 16 years after the death of Jotham, and Hezekiah who followed him had a long reign of 29 years. Thus the ministry of Isaiah may have been spread over 62 years. He was therefore a very old man when he was allegedly put to death by Manasseh; how many years later? He is not called a child as was Jeremiah when he was called as a prophet so he was a man when called. I suspect that about 30 years old is a fair "educated" estimated guess of the age of Isaiah when he answered the call of God and he must have died in his 90's..

2 Above it stood the seraphim: each one had six wings; with two he covered his face, and with two he covered his feet, and with two he flew. 3 And one cried to the others, and said, Holy, holy, holy, is the LORD of hosts: the whole earth is full of his glory. 4 And the posts of the door moved at the voice of him that cried, and the house was filled with smoke. 5. Then I said, Woe is me! for I am undone; because I am a man of unclean lips, and I dwell in the midst of a people of unclean lips: for my eyes have seen the King, the LORD of hosts. 6 Then one of the seraphim flew to me, having a live coal in his hand, which he had taken with the tongs from off the altar: 7 And he laid it upon my mouth, and said, Lo, this has touched your lips; and your iniquity is taken away, and your sin purged. 8 Also I heard the voice of the Lord, saying, Whom shall I send, and who will go for us? Then said I, Here am I; send me. 9. And he said, Go, and tell this people, Indeed you hear, but do not understand; and indeed you see, but do not perceive. 10 Make the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and shut their eyes; lest they see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and understand with their heart, and convert, and be healed. 11 Then said I, Lord, how long? And he answered, Until the cities be wasted without inhabitant, and the houses without man, and the land be utterly desolate, 12 And the LORD has removed men far away, and there be a great forsaking in the midst of the land 13 But yet in it shall be a tenth, and it shall return, and shall be eaten: as a teil tree, and as an oak, whose substance is in them, when they cast their leaves: so the holy seed shall be the substance of it.

Verses 11, 12 and 13: These verses have a different reading in the LXX which is supported by the Qumran text. The KJV translation in vs 11 says that Isaiah should keep preaching until there is no one left. The KJV also makes vs 12 to support the same idea and it emphasizes the emptiness of the land. But this is not the meaning. The broader context of Isaiah predicts the expulsion of the nation of Israel with a remnant of true believers "left in Zion" who will be returned to the land and to whom a restoration of former blessings will be given. The Septuagint (LXX) predicts this return to holiness as the answer to Isaiah's question, "How long?" The return to holiness is the terminal point, not "until no one exists any longer." The LXX text says: After these events take men far away, God will increase those having been abandoned (the remnant) and they will fill up the earth. And the tenth (remnant) which is yet in the earth shall again be for God's providential thought, as a great tree or an oak when it sheds its leaves, which leaves are the seed of holiness, her memorial The reading "the seed of holiness" instead of "holy seed" is possible in the Masoretic text while the Qumran text clearly has a construct form adding a definite article to the word "holiness" which makes certain that the phrase is "the seed of holiness" and not "holy seed." It is the providential thought which is the seed.

Burning: The Hebrew text also contains the word "burning"  (lit. for burning) [translated "shall be eaten"] to refer to the spread of the remnant which is also pictured "like a tree shedding leaves." It is this word "burning" that the LXX translates as "providential thought." The burning is a part of the Messiah's method of spreading his message. See also notes under 4:4 and 9:5 where "burning" occurs as key words in understanding the text although seemingly obscure. "Burning" is consistently linked (at least through chapter 12) with the spiritual power and enthusiasm of the Messiah and his method of conquest, as described where he is said to strike the earth with the rod of his mouth and to slay the wicked with the breath of his lips. Thus Verse 13 describes the restored remnant as a tenth part of the nation becoming effervescent and spreading the restored truth it already contains. It will "again" be strong and spread like "wildfire" and like a great tree shedding its leaves so the remnant, which has within it, as a memorial, the seed of holiness, shall shed it abroad. The KJV word "substance" is from a word that refers to: a memorial, pillar, representative stone, or a statue. The word appears twice in the Hebrew text of vs 13 in Hebrew, Thus: (matstseveth bam zera' qodesh matstsavtah) which means "her memorial is in them, the seed of holiness is her memorial." The idea that the substance of the seed of holiness is already in the remnant or those "left in Zion" is able to be seen in the KJV too, although a bit more obscure, but it is clearer in the original language and the variant reading of the LXX which makes the main message in these last two verses: "the future will see a rebirth of the holiness of God's message" which the LXX sees as "already existent precognitive thoughts." When this condition is reached then Isaiah's commission will have expired.

As an addenda to the last thought I am adding the translation of the Aramaic Targum to Isaiah of verse 13. The Targums which are a translation and interpretive explanation of the text, were initially made in the intertestament period from 300 to 400 BCE and forward. Although added to after the time of Jesus they were initially composed before.

Translated Targum in British English of Isaiah 6:13 And a tenth shall be left in it, and they shall be burnt up again: like a terebinth and like an oak, which appear to be dried up when their leaves fall, though they still retain their moisture to preserve a seed from them: so the exiles for Israel shall be gathered together, and shall return to their land; for a holy seed is their plant.


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