Map 8

Central Italy enlarged to show the Papal States

Map number 8: shows the political conditions of Europe in the era of the Protestant Reformation. (1500's) Notice that there has been no damage to the political power of the Papacy by the Protestant Revolt.. See on the Map that the Holy Roman Empire is still alive and well even in Protestant northern Europe. The Pope still ratified the crowning of Emperor and the kings of Europe through the Holy Roman Empire and the temporal Papal States which are clearly marked on this map. See also that the Eastern Roman Empire, Byzantium, no longer exists. The end of the Roman Empire in the east came in 1453 with the fall of Constantinople to the Turks. See on the map that the Turks have occupied all of Greece, Macedonia, and Hungary. They are at the peak of their power in the period depicted in this map.

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