Column XLV

The Great Isaiah Scroll 54:4 to 55:8

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Physical Characteristics:

This is the middle page of three in the 14th strip of leather that makes up the scroll. The condition of this page is very good with only faint creasing marks visible in the bottom half of the page, right, left and center.

 Paragraphs and Spatiums

 An end of paragraph is marked in line 9 and vs 54:11 begins the next paragraph of line 10. Line 17 is not the end of a paragraph and the "gap" there is discussed below under "A Marked Omission," A new paragraph begins in line 26 and vs 55:6. Significant spatiums mark the beginnings of vss 54:15 and 16 in lines 14 and 15. A spatium at the end of line 18 marks the beginning of Chapter 55. A small spatium in the last line begins 55:8.

 Editorial marks:

A marked Omission
There are a pair of horizontal marks which are a bit faded but can be made out in the right margin that set off part of the last verse of chapter 54. See them in lines 17 and 18. (Chapter 55 begins in the spatium of line 18.) These marks usually set off a section that appealed to the editor. But in this case it marks a large omission of 6 words of text which would have been understood by the scribe and by the editor to have been in the original text, but not in the text from which the scribe copied. The original scribe marked the omission by the gap in line 17 left after the word "yitslach" (imp 3ms shall suceed) and begins line 18 with the word "zoth" The gap left in the text means that the scribe knew that there were 6 words of text missing but they were not in the manuscript that he was copying from and therefore he faithfully copied what he had received but marked the omitted text which would have been well known to him, by the gap left in line 17. The editor marked the omission by the addition of the two horizontal marks.

 Marks in the left margin
The three X's in the left margin follow the usual rule that they refer to text that is to the right of the X and not to the next page. An X in line 10 marks the beautification of Zion with Jewels in her foundation as an important text and the X in line 14 the X marks righteousness in the Foundation of Zion as important to the editor and in line 23 the X marks the sure mercies of David, a messianic reference as important enough to merit notice,

 Editorial additions to the text:

 A yod is edited above the 4th word in line 1. It is significant because it precedes a 2fs suf which would require a yod after the suf if the yod did not precede the suf if the rule the scribe was used to was followed. See note under line 5: Last word below. An article "he" is added to the 2nd word in line 8. The last word in line 10 is edited to properly correct the text by adding "tiyk" (1cs pf verb ending + 2fs suf) to the word below it. The attempt to edit the 3rd word in line 11 is scratched out as a mistake and waw is added to the next to last word in line 11. Waw is also added to the last word in line 12. Aleph was left out of the 4th word (create) in line 15 and is edited above it. On the same line a waw cj is added to the next to last word.

Q Scribal Spelling:

 Examples of adding yod to 2fs suf can be seen in line 1: 3rd and 8th words and the next to last word in line 9, and the last word in line 12. Note the use of waw for any vowel sound in the editors addition of waw to the next to last word in line 11 and see the same i.e. waw stands for qamets in the last word in line 12 and waw stands for serey in the first word in line 16. 2mpl suf "kem" is spelled "kemah" 3 times in line 22 This suffix is spelled "kem" in the 3rd from last word on the page and "kemah" in the last word. See the addition of "he" to 2ms suf in last word in line 25 and 1st word in line 26.

 Variations in Q from the Masoretic Text:

Line 1: 3rd and 4th words (Your husband and your maker) There is a yod edited above the 4th word intended as an addition to kaph to make it clear that it is a 2fs suf "your" as is also the yod after kaph in the 3rd word. Both words have a yod added to 2fs suf therefore. The same yod is added to suf 2ms in the next to last word in this line "and your redeemer." Addition of yod is explained below in the note under Line 5: last word. Follow the link there to further notes.
Line 2: 5th word: Q = a common "error" in Q is the substitution of "he" for aleph especially in this word "qar'a" (call). It is spelled correctly in the 2nd word in the next line (3).
Line 5: 5th word: Q = addition of yod to the end of
the word "chesed" or mercy is plural construct ["chesedey"= mercies of.]
Line 5: last word: The addition of yod to the 2fs suf makes a different pronunciation. Q = "go'elkiy" (your redeemer) and M = "go'alek" same word. This is a normal useage of the Q scribe. A yod is added to kaph 2s suf to indicate the schva sound added to show it is 2fs. Q adds a He to 2ms suf kaph to indicate the extra sylable created by the addition of a qamets sound associated with 2ms suffix. The antecedent of the pronominal suffix in this case is Zion the bride of YHWH and thus the "your" in "your redeemer" is feminine. See the introduction for more on addition of yod to 2fs suffixes.
Line 7: above 1st letter There is a superfluous marking that may have been an attmpt to begin the line in the wrong place. It may be a "he,"
Line 7: 6th word: Q = and extra use of " 'od" (any more) not in M.
Line 8: 3rd word: Q = "tithmotiynah" 7th stem imp 3fpl (they shall be vehemently moved)
Line 10: 2nd word: Q = "sachorah" 4th stem pf 3fs (being moved around) and M = "so'arah" 4th stem pf 3fs (tempest tossed).
Line 10: last word "I will lay your foundations." The pf. 1cs verb ending "tiy" + 2fs suf. kaph is edited at the end of the word above the line. Beside this it is a good example of 2fs suf not requiring an added yod since a yod precedes the suffix and therefore the kaph closes the sylable. For further understanding of addition of yod to 2fs suffixes and other fem. forms see Line 5: last word note above.
Line 13: 2nd word: Q ' "tithekoneniy" 7th stem imp 2fs (you shall be firmly established) and M = "tikoneniy" 1st stem imp 2fs (you shall be established).
Line 14: 7th word: Q = a scribal mistake: " 'ekes' is written but " 'ephes" is correct. 3rd from last word: Q = "yagar" imp 3ms (he will assemble) and M = "gar" pf 3ms (he will assemble).
Line 15: 1st word Q = "yipolu" imp 3mpl (they will fall). and M = "yipol" imp 3ms: (he will fall). 2nd word: Q = "hineh" which is M qerey. ("hen" = kituv).
Line 17: after 1st word: Q omits the following phrase that would be in the gap. The words in M: "and you shall condemn every tongue that shall rise against you in judgement"; are not in Q
Line 19: just before the next to last word: Q = two words found in M are missing in the Q text. They are "ve-'ekolu ulku" imperatives (and eat and come)
Line 21: 4th word: Q = a different spelling (Aramaic accent?) = "shimoa' " (aleph ending) and M = "shimoa' " (ayin ending).
Line 22: 5th word: Q = add waw cj not in M. 6th word :Q = add final "he" not in M.
Line 23: 6th word Q = "hineh" and M = "hen" Last word: Q = "natatiyhu" (I will give him) and M = "netatiyv" (I will give him).
Line 24: 4th word: Q = "hineh" and M = hen"
Line 25: 2nd word: Q = "yarutsu" imp 3ms (they shall run) and M = "yaruts" imp 3ms (he shall run).

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